Vol_5_No_2_Government_Scholarship_Scheme

Government Scholarship Scheme for Indian Muslim Students : Access and Impact Download

Fahimuddin

The Prime Minister’s 15 Point Programme for the welfare of minorities was announced in June, 2006. It provided that a Pre-matric scholarship scheme for meritorious students from minority communities would be implemented. The scholarship at Pre-matric level will encourage parents from minority communities to send their school going children to school, lighten their financial burden on school education and sustain their efforts to support their children to complete school education. The scheme will form the foundation for their educational attainment and provide a level playing field in the competitive employment arena. Empowerment through education, which is one of the objectives of this scheme, has the potential to lead to upliftment of their socio economic conditions. The scholarship will be awarded for studies in India in a government or private school from class I to class X, including such residential Government institutes and eligible private institutes selected and notified in a transparent manner by the State Government and Union Territory Administration concerned. Scholarship will be awarded to the students who have secured not less than 50 per cent marks in the final examination and annual income of their parents/guardian from all sources does not exceed Rs. 1 lakh. Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists and Zoroastrians (Parsis) have been notified as minority communities under Section 2 (c) of the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992. The distribution of scholarship among the States/Union Territories will be made on the basis of population of minorities in the States/Union Territories of Census 2001. 30 per cent of scholarship will be earmarked for girl students.

In case sufficient number of eligible girl students is not available, then the balance earmarked scholarships may be awarded to eligible boy students. As the number of scholarships for minorities available in a year is fixed and limited it is necessary to lay down preference for selection.

Selection weightage is to be given to poverty rather than marks. In case of the renewal applications, such applications would be fully exhausted before the new applications are considered. The scholarships will be provided for the entire course. Maintenance allowance will be given for 10 months only in an academic year.

Objectives and Sample of the Paper

The paper is based on a larger evaluation study carried in the district of Rampur, Uttar Pradesh to study the working of all the four scholarship schemes namely the Pre-matric, Post-matric, Merit cum Means and Free Coaching. Since the beneficiary of these schemes were largely the Muslims, the impact of Pre-matric Scholarship of the education and associated factors relating to Muslim students was analyzed. Rampur district which is the second largest minority concentrated districts of Uttar Pradesh State was selected for the evaluation of Educational Scholarship Schemes of the Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. There are six development blocks in Rampur district. Out of six development blocks, two development blocks namely Swar and Shahabad have relatively larger concentration of minorities in the district. In these two blocks, distribution of each of the three types of scholarships was also higher among all the six blocks. Therefore, these two blocks were selected as sample blocks. In each of the two blocks, four institutions were identified where higher numbers of scholarships were awarded. In the catchment area of these institutions (identified on the basis of number of students coming to these institutions) five villages were selected from one block (selection of villages was based on the population of minorities and distribution of number of Scholarships. In each sample village, household listing was prepared to identify the students who obtained pre-matric scholarship of the Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Among the identified students who obtained Pre-matric Scholarship, twenty (20) beneficiary students and ten (10) non-beneficiary students were selected from each village for detailed interview.  All the scholarships in the district have been given to Muslims only and very few to Sikhs and Christians. Therefore, sample of the study could capture Muslim beneficiaries only. The sampling details of Pre-matric scholarship is as follows:

Table-1: Sample Size of the Pre-matric Scholarship: Students

Gender

Rural

Urban

Total

BeneficiaryStudents
Boys

92

16

108

Girls

108

24

132

Total

200

40

240

Non Beneficiary Students
Boys

52

15

67

Girls

48

5

53

Total

100

20

120

All Students
Boys

144

31

175

Girls

156

29

185

Total

300

60

360

 

Findings

Access to Schools and Award of Pre-matric Scholarship

On the basis of household survey, it was assessed that how many children out of total children that are in the age group of 6 to 14 years were going to schools. It was found that at the aggregate level; around 65 per cent of them were attending the schools regularly.  There was no major difference between the boys and girls in this regard. The percentage of school attending children was higher in urban areas (72.07) in comparison with the children in rural areas (63.81).  These results appear to be realistic as it was found in various rounds of Monitoring and Evaluation of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Programme in different districts of Uttar Pradesh that roughly 55 to 60 per cent of enrolled children attend their schools regularly.  In this way, 35 to 40 per cent of school age enrolled children remain out of school. The Muslim children also showed similar pattern as far their accessibility to schooling is concerned. This goes to show that substantial number of school age children still does not have access to schools and Muslim children are equal participants in such type of out of school children.

It was also assessed that out of total children who applied for the Pre-matric scholarship in the past, how many of them succeeded in getting the scholarship. As evident in table-2 that out of those children who applied for the Pre-matric scholarship, around 40 per cent of them got it. The percentage of pre-matric scholarship getting children was higher in rural areas as against in urban areas. The percentage of girls both in rural and urban areas was higher in comparison with boys.  Thus, only 40 per cent of all Muslim students who applied for the Pre-matric succeeded in getting it. It indicated that the benefit of Pre-matric scholarship could not be available to majority of eligible Muslim students.

Table-2: Accessibility of Muslim Children to Schools and Pre-matric Scholarship

Item

Number of Students

Rural

Urban

Total

Children Going to School
Boys

250(63.61)

57(71.25)

307(64.90)

Girls

242(64.02)

54(72.97)

296(65.48)

Total

492(63.81)

111(72.07)

603(65.19)

Students Getting Scholarships
Boys

92(36.80)

16(28.07)

108(35.18)

Girls

108(44.62)

24(44.44)

132(44.59)

Total

200(40.65)

40(36.36)

240(39.80)

(Source: Primary data)

Awareness about Pre-matric Scholarship

Awareness among the sample students about the Pre-matric scholarship was examined and the result has been shown in table-3. It is to be mentioned here that the awareness here means complete knowledge of details of Pre-matric scholarship scheme like the name of the scheme, source of availability of its application form, eligibility criteria, knowledge of filling of application form, submission of the form and the date on which the award of the scholarship is known. On the basis of wholesome knowledge of the Pre-matric scholarship scheme, number of beneficiary and non-beneficiary students was found to be not much. However, the fact is that the proportion of beneficiary students who are aware of the details of Pre-matric scheme was higher than the non-beneficiary students as evident from table-3. At the aggregate level of rural and urban areas and boys and girls, no major difference in the proportion of scheme knowing students among the beneficiary group and all students was evident. However, the percentage of urban beneficiary boys having awareness of the scheme was higher than the girls in the same group. Similarly, the percentages of non-beneficiary boys and total boys knowing the scheme were higher than of the girls in the respective groups.  On the whole, detail awareness about the Pre-matric scholarship among the students was found to be poor in general in Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh and among the girls of the district it was in particular worse than that of the boys. It is to be mentioned here that out of total students (240 students) who were getting Pre-matric scholarship, large number of them were not aware (138 students) that they were getting the Pre-matric scholarship.

Table-3:  Students who are completely aware of the Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme

No. of Student

Students

Rural

Urban

Total

Beneficiary

Boys

40 (43.48)

7 (43.75)

47 (43.52)

Girls

46 (42.59)

9 (37.50)

55 (41.67)

Total

86 (43.00)

16 (40.00)

102 (42.50)

Non-Beneficiary

Boys

17 (32.69)

8 (53.34)

25 (37.31)

Girls

19 (39.58)

1 (20.00)

20 (37.33)

Total

36 (36.00)

9 (45.00)

45 (37.50)

All

Boys

57 (39.58)

15 (48.38)

72 (41.14)

Girls

65 (41.68)

10 (34.48)

75 (40.54)

Total

122 (40.00)

25 (41.67)

147 (40.84)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Sources of Awareness of Pre-matric Scholarship to Rural Students

            The sources of awareness of the beneficiary as well as non-beneficiary students of rural areas were obtained from sample students. It is found in table-4 that the school teachers were the most important source of awareness to students followed by the fellow students who got scholarship, representative of gram panchayats/urban bodies and radio. It is to be noted here that Newspapers were the least important source of awareness of Pre-matric scholarship to rural students, despite the fact that government officials consider the Newspaper as the most important source of spreading awareness about the scholarships. The pattern of awareness was found to be the same across beneficiary and non-beneficiary students of rural areas in the district. The level of awareness from different sources also does not vary much across different groups.

Table-4: Sources of Awareness of Pre-matric Scholarship among Rural Students

Source

Rural (Students)

Beneficiary

Non-Beneficiary

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Teachers

14
(35.00)

17
(36.96)

31
(36.05)

6
(35.29)

7
(36.84)

13
(36.11)

20
(35.09)

24
(36.92)

44
(36.07)

Students who got Scholarship

9
(22.50)

10
(21.74)

19
(22.09)

4
(23.53)

5
(26.32)

9
(25.00)

13
(22.81)

15
(23.08)

28
(22.95)

Gram Panchayat
Representative

7
(17.50)

8
(17.39)

15
(17.44)

3
(17.65)

4
(21.05)

7
(19.45)

10
(17.54)

12
(18.46)

22
(18.03)

Radio/TV

6
(15.00)

7
(15.22)

13
(15.12)

2
(11.77)

2
(10.53)

4
(11.11)

8
(14.03)

9
(13.85)

17
(13.93)

News Papers

4
(10.00)

4
(8.68)

8
(9.30)

2
(11.76)

1
(5.26)

3
(8.33)

6
(10.53)

5
(7.69)

11
(9.02)

Total Student

40
(100.00)

46
(100.00)

86
(100.00)

17
(100.00)

19
(100.00)

36
(100.00)

57
(100.00)

65
(100.00)

122
(100.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Sources of Awareness of Pre-matric Scholarship to Urban Students

The sources of awareness of the beneficiary as well as non-beneficiary students of urban areas were obtained from sample students. It is found in the table-5 again that the school teachers were the most important source of awareness to students followed by the fellow students who got scholarship, representative of urban bodies and radio/TV. It is to be mentioned here again that Newspapers are the least important source of awareness of Pre-matric scholarship to urban students about which only 12 per cent students reported that they got information about Pre-matric scholarship. The teachers and fellow students accounted for more than 50 per cent for the sample students as the major source of their awareness for Pre-matric scholarship.

Table-5: Sources of Awareness of Pre-matric Scholarship among Urban Students

Source

Urban (Students)

Beneficiary

Non-Beneficiary

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Teachers

2
(28.57)

3
(33.33)

5
(31.25)

2
(25.00)

1
(100.00)

3
(33.33)

4
(26.67)

4
(40.00)

8
(32.00)

Students who got Scholarship

1
(14.29)

2
(22.22)

3
(18.75)

2
(25.00)


(0.00)

2
(22.22)

3
(20.00)

2
(20.00)

5
(20.00)

Sabhasad

1
(14.29)


(0.00)

1
(6.25)


(0.00)


(0.00)


(0.00)

1
(6.67)


(0.00)

1
(4.00)

Radio/TV

2
(28.57)

3
(33.33)

5
(31.25)

3
(37.50)


(0.00)

3
(33.33)

5
(33.33)

3
(30.00)

8
(32.00)

News Paper

1
(14.28)

1
(11.12)

2
(12.50)

1
(12.50)


(0.00)

1
(11.12)

2
(13.33)

1
(10.00)

3
(12.00)

Total Students

7
(100.00)

9
(100.00)

16
(100.00)

8
(100.00)

1
(100.00)

9
(100.00)

15
(100.00)

10
(100.00)

25
(100.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Sources of Awareness of Pre-matric Scholarship to All Students

The sources of awareness of the beneficiary as well as non-beneficiary students were enquired from them. It was found in the table-6 that the school teachers were the most important source of awareness to students (35.30 per cent )  followed by the fellow students (22.45 per cent) who got scholarship, representative of gram panchayats/urban bodies (15.65) and Radio/TV (17.01) and  Newspapers (9.52 per cent students). The teachers and fellow students accounted for 57.82 per cent of sample students as the major source of their awareness for Pre-matric scholarship. The radio/TV appears to be an important source of spreading awareness about the Pre-matric scholarship.

Table-6: Sources of Awareness of Pre-matric Scholarship among All Students

Sources

All Students (Rural and Urban)

Beneficiary

Non-Beneficiary

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Teachers

16
(34.04)

20
(36.36)

36
(35.29)

8
(32.00)

8
(40.00)

16
(35.55)

24
(33.33)

28
(37.33)

52
(35.37)

Students who got Scholarship

10
(21.28)

12
(21.82)

22
(21.57)

6
(24.00)

5
(25.00)

11
(24.44)

16
(22.22)

17
(22.67)

33
(22.45)

Gram Panchayats
Representative/Sabhasad

8
(17.02)

8
(14.55)

16
(15.69)

3
(12.00)

4
(20.00)

7
(15.56)

11
(15.28)

12
(16.00)

23
(15.65)

Radio/TV

8
(17.02)

10
(18.18)

18
(17.65)

5
(20.00)

2
(10.00)

7
(15.56)

13
(18.06)

12
(16.00)

25
(17.01)

News Papers

5
(10.64)

5
(9.09)

10
(9.80)

3
(12.00)

1
(5.00)

4
(8.89)

8
(11.11)

6
(8.00)

14
(9.52)

Total Students

47
(100.00)

55
(100.00)

102
(100.00)

25
(100.00)

20
(100.00)

45
(100.00)

72
(100.00)

75
(100.00)

147
(100.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Knowledge about Eligibility Conditions

It has been found above that the teachers were the main source of information of Pre-matric scholarship to students. The teachers generally informed students that to get the scholarship, a student was to fulfill two conditions. One was that the total annual income of the parents should not exceed more than 1 lakh in an year and the other was that the student should have obtained not less than 50 per cent marks in final examination of last class. When sample students were asked to report about their knowledge about these two basic conditions, 69.17 per cent of them reported to be aware of these conditions of Pre-matric scholarship (Table-7).

Table-7:  Students knowing Eligibility Conditions of Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme

Students

Rural

Urban

Total

Beneficiary

Boys

67 (72.82)

13 (81.25)

80 (74.07)

Girls

62 (57.40)

14 (58.34)

76 (57.57)

Total

129 (64.50)

27(67.50)

156 (65.00)

Non-Beneficiary

Boys

34 (65.38)

13 (86.67)

47 (70.15)

Girls

43 (89.58)

3 (60.00)

46 (86.79)

Total

77 (77.00)

16 (80.00)

93 (77.50)

All

Boys

101 (70.14)

26 (83.87)

127(72.57)

Girls

105 (67.30)

17 (58.62)

122 (75.95)

Total

206 (68.67)

43 (71.67)

249 (79.17)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Knowledge of both Eligibility Conditions

There were three conditions of getting the Pre-matric scholarship. One was the income limit of Rs. 1 lakh, other was the condition of getting 50 per cent marks in the last examination and finally only 2 children were eligible to get the Pre-matric scholarship from a household. When the knowledge of each of three conditions was enquired from the students, they reported what has been placed in table-8. The table showed that the substantial percentages of sample students was  aware of the first criteria. The same was about second and third conditions. Further, it was evident that the level of awareness about each of the three conditions of getting scholarship was higher in urban areas as against in rural areas of the district.

Table-8: Knowledge of Each of the two Eligibility Conditions of Pre-matric Scholarship

Conditions

No. of Students

Rural

Urban

Total

B.

NB.

Total

B.

NB.

Total

B.

NB.

Total

Household Income not more than Rs. 1 lakh

90
(69.77)

70
(90.91)

160
(77.67)

31
(96.88)

14
(93.33)

45
(95.74)

121
(75.16)

84
(91.30)

205
(81.02)

Marks not less than 50 per cent in last exam

120
(93.02)

75
(97.40)

195
(94.66)

32
(100.00)

15
(100.00)

47
(100.00)

152
(94.41)

90
(97.83)

242
(95.65)

Only  2 students from one  household

95
(73.64)

69
(89.61)

164
(79.61)

30
(93.75)

15
(100.00)

45
(95.74)

125
(77.64)

125
(135.87)

250
(98.81)

Total Respondents

129
(100.00)

77
(100.00)

206
(100.00)

32
(100.00)

15
(100.00)

47
(100.00)

161
(100.00)

92
(100.00)

253
(100.00)

Note: B- Beneficiary
NB-Non Beneficiary
(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Mode of Payment of Scholarship Amount

The beneficiary students have reported that around 55 per cent of them got the scholarship money through cheque while 45 per cent got in cash. The percentage of rural boys and girls getting in cash was higher than their urban counterparts. Even the higher percentage of urban girls got the money in cash than the urban boys (Table-9).

Table-9 Mode of Payment of Scholarship Amount

Mode

Rural

Urban

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Cash

43
(46.74)

51
(47.22)

94
(47.00)

7
(43.75)

11
(45.83)

18
(45.00)

47
(43.52)

62
(46.97)

109
(45.42)

Cheque

49
(53.26)

57
(52.78)

106
(53.00)

9
(56.25)

13
(54.17)

22
(55.00)

61
(56.48)

70
(53.03)

131
(54.58)

Total Beneficiaries

92
(100.00)

108
(100.00)

200
(100.00)

16
(100.00)

24
(100.00)

40
(100.00)

108
(100.00)

132
(100.00)

240
(100.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Scholarship Given by Different Persons

The beneficiary students have reported that they get scholarship money from three persons. On the top were their teachers from whom 57.08 per cent students reported to have got the money.  Others were as shown in table-10.

Table-10: Scholarship Given by Different Persons

Particulars

Rural

Urban

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

By Teachers

55
(59.78)

72
(66.67)

127
(63.50)

9
(56.25)

12
(50.00)

21
(52.50)

72
(66.67)

65
(49.24)

137
(57.08)

By  Pradhan/Sabhasad

24
(26.09)

28
(25.93)

52
(26.00)

5
(31.25)

8
(33.33)

13
(32.50)

23
(21.30)

35
(26.51)

58
(24.17)

By  Secretary

13
(14.13)

8
(7.40)

21
(10.50)

2
(12.50)

4
(16.67)

6
(15.00)

13
(12.03)

32
(24.24)

45
(18.75)

Total Beneficiaries

92
(100.00)

108
(100.00)

200
(100.00)

16
(100.00)

24
(100.00)

40
(100.00)

108
(100.00)

132
(100.00)

240
(100.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Expenses for Getting Pre-matric Scholarship

The beneficiary students have reported that they spent around Rs. 339 on different formalities to get Pre-matric scholarship. Getting income certificate and affidavit are the two major items of expenditure. The rural beneficiary students spent more as against urban beneficiary students as table-11 showed.

Table-11: Item wise Expenditure for getting Pre-matric Scholarship

Items

Average Amount (in Rs.)

Rural

Urban

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Income Certificate

154

158

156

146

149

148

150

154

152

On Making Affidavit

106

108

107

93

97

95

100

103

101

Photos  and  Travel etc

82

95

89

79

90

85

81

92

85

Total

343

362

353

319

337

319

332

348

339

(Source: Primary data)

Utilization of Pre-matric Scholarship Amount: Students of Class 1-5

The beneficiary students have reported that more than 46 percent amount of Pre-matric scholarship was spent on their education. It was slightly higher in case of girls than the boys. Besides, around 17 per cent was spent on medical expenses and around 10 per cent on food. In this way, Pre-matric scholarship has positive impact on the education of children in particular and also on their health care and food needs (Table-12).

Table-12: Items wise Average Expenditure of Scholarship Amount: Students of Class-1-5

Items

Average Amount (in Rs.)

Rural

Urban

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

1- Books & Stationary

72

73

73

73

75

74

73

74

74

2- Learning Material

90

85

88

92

86

89

91

86

89

3- Travel

39

41

40

42

45

44

41

43

42

4- Private Tuition Fee

73

68

76

76

69

73

75

69

72

5- Course Fee

198

198

198

203

203

203

201

201

201

6-  Medical Expenses

162

156

160

164

158

161

163

157

160

7- Food Expenses

103

94

99

102

97

100

103

96

100

8- Non Food Expenses

190

182

186

193

184

189

192

183

188

9- Debt Return

10

5

8

15

8

13

3

8

Total

938

901

927

961

918

940

953

911

935

(Source: Primary data)

Utilization of Pre-matric Scholarship Amount: Students of Class 6-10

The utilization pattern of beneficiary students of classes 1-10 as shown in table-13 indicated that Pre-matric scholarship has positive impact on the education of Muslim students of classes 1- to 10.  The money of scholarship spent on health and food was substantial. Certainly the scholarship was great help to Muslim students in meeting their educational and health needs.

Table-13: Items wise Average Expenditure of Scholarship Amount: Students of Class-6-10

Items

Average Amount (in Rs.)

Rural

Urban

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

1- Books & Stationary

87

89

88

91

95

93

89

92

96

2- Learning Material

96

98

97

102

106

104

99

102

101

3- Travel

74

76

75

78

82

80

76

79

78

4- Private Tuition Fee

94

98

96

104

107

106

99

103

101

5- Course Fee

208

212

210

213

218

216

210

215

213

6-  Medical Expenses

193

198

196

203

207

205

196

203

200

7- Food Expenses

136

139

138

146

149

148

141

144

143

8- Non Food Expenses

203

206

205

212

218

215

208

209

209

9- Debt Return

5

3

3

2

Total

1097

1117

1107

1149

1182

1166

1123

1150

1137

(Source: Primary data)

Effectiveness of Pre-matric Scholarship: Rural Students

The effectiveness of Pre-matric scholarship is evident in table-14.The Pre-matric scholarship was found to be effective in overall educational development of rural students, their health care and family needs and in providing them a silver lining for higher studies and good job prospect. But most of the students have reported that they did not take admission due to scholarship and their attendance did not improve also after getting the scholarship. This means that the financial gains of pre-matric scholarship were helpful to the students.

Table-14: Effectiveness of Pre-matric Scholarship: Rural Students

Particulars

Boys

Girls

Total

 Admission Taken due to Scholarship

2 (2.17)

4 (3.70)

6 (3.00)

Attendance at the School Improved

17 (18.48)

19 (17.59)

36 (18.00)

Scholarship has Fulfilled Study Needs

82 (89.13)

98 (90.74)

180 (90.00)

Scholarship has  Helped in Health Care Needs

82 (89.13)

98 (90.74)

180 (90.00)

 Desire to Continue  Studies after Getting Scholarship

70 (76.09)

91 (98.91)

161 (80.50)

 Educational Skills has Improved

83 (90.22)

103 (95.37)

186 (93.00)

Involvement in the Household Activities has Reduced.

84 (91.30)

101 (93.52)

185 (92.50)

Scholarship has Helped in Family Needs

51 (55.43)

68 (73.91)

119 (59.50)

Chances to Continue Study in Higher Class and get a job increased

50 (54.35)

62 (57.41)

112 (56.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Effectiveness of Pre-matric Scholarship: Urban Students

The positive effectiveness of Pre-matric scholarship to urban students was also evident in table-15.  The Pre-matric scholarship was effective in overall educational development of urban students, their health care needs and in providing them a silver lining for higher studies and good job prospect in future but negligible number of Muslim students reported that they took admission due to pre-matric scholarship and their there was no improvement in their attendance also.

Table-15: Effectiveness of Pre-matric Scholarship: Urban Students

Particulars

Boys

Girls

Total

Admission Taken due to Scholarship

0 (0.00)

1 (4.16)

1 (2.50)

 Attendance at the School Improved

4 (25.00)

3 (12.5)

7 (17.50)

Scholarship has Fulfilled Study Needs

14 (87.50)

21 (87.50)

35 (87.50)

Scholarship has  Helped in Health Care Needs

14 (87.50)

21 (87.50)

35 (87.50)

Desire to Continue  Studies after Getting Scholarship

14 (87.50)

20 (83.34)

34 (85.00)

Educational Skills has Improved

15 (93.75)

24(100..00)

39 (97.50)

Involvement in the Household Activities has Reduced.

16(100.00)

24(100.00)

40(100.00)

Scholarship has Helped in Family Needs

5 (31.25)

14 (58.34)

19 (47.50)

Chances to Continue Study in Higher Class and get a job increased

9 (56.25)

15 (62.50)

24 (60.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Effectiveness of Pre-matric Scholarship: All Students

The positive effectiveness of Pre-matric scholarship was evident in table-16.  The Pre-matric scholarship was effective in overall educational development of rural students, their health care and family needs and in providing them a silver lining for higher studies and good job prospect in future but two aspects namely taking of admission and improvement in attendance could not be impacted due to pre-matric scholarship.

Table-16: Effectiveness of Pre-matric Scholarship: All Students

Particulars

Boys

Girls

Total

1. Admission Taken due to Scholarship

2 (1.85)

5 (3.79)

7 (2.92)

2. Attendance has Increased due to Scholarship

21 (19.44)

22 (16.67)

43(17.92)

3. Scholarship has  Fulfilled study Needs

96 (88.89)

112(90.15)

215(89.58)

4. Scholarship have Helped in the Health Care Needs

96 (88.89)

119(90.15)

215(89.58)

5. Desire to Continue his Studies after Getting Scholarship

84 (77.78)

111(84.09)

195(81.25)

6. Educational Skills has Improved

98 (90.74)

127(96.21)

225(93.75)

7. Involvement in the Household Activities had Reduced.

100 (92.59)

125(94.70)

225(93.75)

8. Scholarship have Helped in Family Needs

56 (51.85)

82 (62.12)

138(57.50)

9. Improved the Chances to Continue Study in Higher Class or to Get a Job

59 (54.63)

77 (58.33)

136(56.67)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Perception of Rural Students about Pre-matric Scholarship

The table-17 showed that more than 80 per cent rural students both – beneficiary and non-beneficiaries – felt that there was lack of awareness about the Pre-matric scholarship scheme and language of application form was problem and it was lengthy too. 60 to 71 per cent  found documentation and income limit as problems. Untimely payment was an issue for less than half of the rural students.

Table-17: Views of Rural Students about Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme

 

Views

Rural

Beneficiary

Non-Beneficiary

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Lack of Awareness about the Details of Scheme

77
(83.70)

92
(85.19)

169
(84.50)

42
(80.77)

39
(81.25)

81
(81.00)

119
(82.64)

131
(83.97)

250
(83.33)

 Application Form is Lengthy& Language Problems

73
(79.35)

88
(81.48)

161
(80.50)

40
(76.92)

36
(75.00)

76
(76.00)

113
(78.47)

124
(79.48)

237
(79.00)

Too Much Documentation etc.

67
(72.83)

85
(78.70)

152
(76.00)

37
(71.15)

35
(72.92)

72
(72.00)

104
(72.22)

120
(76.92)

224
(74.67)

Income limit of 1 Lakh

62
(67.39)

83
(76.85)

145
(72.50)

34
(65.38)

33
(68.75)

67
(67.00)

96
(66.67)

116
(74.36)

212
(70.67)

50 Percent limit of Marks

51
(55.43)

70
(64.81)

121
(60.50)

31
(59.62)

32
(66.75)

63
(63.00)

82
(56.94)

102
(65.38)

184
(61.33)

Untimely Payment

45
(48.91)

53
(49.07)

98
(49.00)

25
(48.08)

23
(47.92)

48
(48.00)

70
(48.61)

76
(48.71)

146
(48.67)

Total Students

92
(100.00)

108
(100.00)

200
(100.00)

52
(100.00)

48
(100.00)

100
(100.00)

144
(100.00)

156
(100.00)

300
(100.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.0
(Source: Primary data)

Perception of Urban Students about Pre-matric Scholarship

The urban students found four major problems of Pre-matric scholarship as shown in table-18. The lack of awareness was the most serious drawback of Pre-matric scholarship experienced by around more than 85 per cent urban students. Boys and girls felt this problem alike. Lengthy application form and its language were the two other issues felt by more than 78 per cent of urban students. Similarly, too much document was another problem felt by more than 65 per cent urban students.

Table-18: Views of Urban Students about Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme

 

Views

Urban

Beneficiary

Non-Beneficiary

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

 Lack of Awareness about the Detail of Scheme

14
(87.50)

20
(83.33)

34
(85.00)

13
(86.67)

4
(80.00)

17
(85.00)

27
(87.10)

24
(82.76)

51
(85.00)

Application Form is Lengthy & Language Problems

13
(81.25)

19
(79.17)

32
(80.00)

11
(73.33)

4
(80.00)

15
(75.00)

24
(77.42)

23
(79.31)

47
(78.33)

Too Much Documentation etc.

10
(62.50)

16
(66.67)

26
(65.00)

10
(66.67)

3
(60.00)

13
(65.00)

20
(64.52)

19
(65.52)

39
(65.00)

Income limit of 1 Lakh

9
(56.25)

15
(62.50)

24
(60.00)

9
(60.00)

3
(60.00)

12
(60.00)

18
(58.06)

18
(62.07)

36
(60.00)

50 Percent limit of Marks

8
(50.00)

14
(58.33)

22
(55.00)

8
(53.33)

2
(40.00)

10
(50.00)

16
(51.61)

16
(55.17)

32
(53.33)

 Untimely Payment

7
(43.75)

11
(45.83)

18
(45.00)

7
(46.67)

2
(40.00)

9
(45.00)

14
(45.16)

13
(44.83)

27
(45.00)

Total Students

16
(100.00)

24
(100.00)

40
(100.00)

15
(100.00)

5
(100.00)

20
(100.00)

31
(100.00)

29
(100.00)

60
(100.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Perception of All Students about Pre-matric Scholarship

The lack of awareness about the details of pre-matric scholarship scheme was the view of most the students followed by the lengthy application form and its language. Too much documentation and income limit were the other two observations made by more than 70 per cent of respondents as shown in table-19.

Table-19: Views of All Students about Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme

Views

Total (Rural and Urban)

Beneficiary

Non-Beneficiary

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

Boys

Girls

Total

 Lack of Awareness about the Detail of Scheme

91
(84.26)

112
(84.85)

203
(84.58)

55
(82.09)

43
(81.13)

98
(81.67)

146
(83.43)

155
(83.78)

301
(83.61)

 Application Form is Lengthy & Language Problems

86
(79.63)

107
(81.06)

193
(80.42)

51
(76.12)

40
(75.47)

91
(75.83)

137
(78.29)

147
(79.46)

284
(78.89)

Too Much Documentation etc.

77
(71.30)

101
(76.52)

178
(74.17)

47
(70.15)

48
(90.57)

85
(70.83)

124
(70.86)

139
(75.14)

263
(73.06)

Income limit of 1 Lakh

71
(65.74)

98
(74.24)

169
(70.42)

43
(64.18)

36
(67.92)

79
(65.83)

114
(65.14)

134
(72.43)

248
(68.89)

50 Percent limit of Marks

59
(54.63)

84
(63.64)

143
(59.58)

39
(58.21)

34
(64.15)

73
(60.83)

98
(56.00)

118
(63.78)

216
(60.00)

Untimely Payment

52
(48.15)

64
(48.48)

116
(48.33)

32
(47.76)

25
(47.17)

57
(47.50)

84
(48.00)

89
(48.11)

173
(48.06)

Total Students

108
(100.00)

132
(100.00)

240
(100.00)

67
(100.00)

53
(100.00)

120
(100.00)

175
(100.00)

185
(100.00)

360
(100.00)

(Note: Figures in brackets indicate percentages.)
(Source: Primary data)

Field Observations about Pre-matric Scholarship

During the field work of this evaluation, extensive discussions were held with each of the stakeholders of the Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme in Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh. On the basis of these discussions, we have reached the conclusion that the implementation of this scheme has been very poor in the district. The inefficiency and corruption in the implementation of the scheme in the district can be gauged from the fact that one of the concerned officials is still in jail because of the massive embezzlement of the scholarship money in Rampur district.  The vested interests that are to be termed as intermediaries or middlemen have got involved in the award of Pre-matric Scholarship. The students and their parents have little idea how and from where to procure the application forms. At this stage, the management of private schools comes to their rescue that obtains form in bulk and fills it and gets it signed by the students. They also do other formalities like obtaining income certificate and affidavit on behalf of students. After completing the applications, they go to the office of District Minority Welfare Officer. The Minority Welfare Officer has appointed a private data entry firm. After checking and signing the applications, the Minority Welfare Officer sends all forms to data entry firm. The data entry firm charges around Rs. 10-20 per application for entry of their application from the students. After the applications are entered, a CD is prepared by the data entry firm which it gives to the Minority Welfare Officer who sends this CD for onward processing. Many data entry firms approached our field staff in Rampur district during field work of this to arrange the contract to them and in turn offered money to us. When the sanctioned money is received by the District Minority Welfare Officer from the state, his office makes a consolidated cheque of all awardee students institution wise. In this way, an institution receives a cheque of all its students who are studying there and applied from the institution.  After getting the cheque, the school deposits it in its account. The schools deduct their entire annual fee of the students from the money the school received in the form of cheque  of Pre-matric Scholarship and gives only Rs. 300 to 400 to each awardee students. In this way, every party remains in win situation. The students need not to bother about the formalities of applying, students have no botheration to  pay annual fee to their schools, schools administration  get assured fee, data entry firm do a good business and there is possibility that many more may be profiting. But ultimately the students are losers as they get only marginal part of money of the Pre-matric scholarship. We have found little interest among the teachers of government schools about the Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme. The private schools get involved because the payment of their annual fee is ensured from the Pre-matric Scholarship Money. This practice has been going on since the beginning of the scheme but recently appointed District Minority Welfare Officer is trying his best to change the situation. He is known as an honest officer in the district and if he continues there, all round efficiency in the implementation of the scheme is expected. It was also known that in a similar inefficient and corrupt pattern the Pre-matric Scholarship is being implemented in entire Uttar Pradesh. We can well understand the inefficiency and lethargy of the concerned officials right from state level to district in implementation of the Scholarship Schemes of the Ministry of Minority Welfare, Government of India from the fact that the Free Coaching and Allied Scheme has not been implemented in Rampur district as yet though the district Rampur is the second largest minority concentrated district in Uttar Pradesh.  However, these observations are difficult to be captured in quantitative data form.

Key Issues of Pre-matric Scholarship

  • > The important fact that has emerged from this evaluation is that the Pre-matric scholarship has been very effective in overall development of students which included their educational needs, their health care needs and in providing them a silver lining for higher studies and good job prospect in future.
  • > It is also a fact that there is a great demand of Pre-matric Scholarship among the minority communities but roughly 40-50 per cent of them manage to get it. This has been proved from the primary as well as district level secondary data.
  • > Considering the present income level of parents and level of expenditure on education, the income limit of parents and the amount of Pre-matric Scholarship require upward revision.
  • > The detailed awareness about the Pre-matric scholarship among the students was found to be very poor in general in Rampur district. This has been substantiated by the students, parents, institutions and officials.
  • > Substantial percentages of awardee students are being paid their scholarship money in cash.
  • > Substantial number of students felt difficulty in obtaining application form, filling it and submitting it.
  • > Considerable time is also spent on application for the award of scholarship.
  • > Most of the students feel that the state government officials are mainly responsible for the delay of scholarship.
  • > The private schools are playing the role of middlemen in the award of Pre-matric scholarship which could be known during the filed investigation.
  • > On the whole, it can be concluded that the implementation of Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme is poor and inefficient in Rampur district in particular and in entire Uttar Pradesh in general.

Suggestions

  • > There is need of rigorous orientation training of state and district level officials who oversee the scheme.
  • > Simultaneously need is to generate awareness among the minority community about the scholarship scheme.
  • > The teachers of government schools should be made aware of the scheme and they should be made to encourage their students to apply for the Pre-matric scholarship. The state officials may also be asked to involve village panchayats in this matter.
  • > The income limit of parents should be raised to Rs. 1,50,000/.  The amount of Pre-matric Scholarship should reasonably be increased.
  • > The application form should be in Hindi and be simplified.
  • > The private data entry firms should not be engaged in processing of application. One computer literate staff may be appointed on contract basis at the office of District Minority Welfare Officer to see the entire process of Pre-matric Scholarship.
  • > The payment of scholarship in cash must be stopped and bulk payment to schools should be prohibited. All students should be asked to open an account in the bank and scholarship money should be electronically transferred to their account directly from the state level.
  • > In some way accountability clause should be added in the scheme and District Magistrates should be held responsible if poor and inefficient implementation is found.

References

    1. Evaluation of Scholarship Schemes of the Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India in Rampur district of Uttar Pradesh, Submitted to the Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, March, 2012.
    2. Evaluation of Scholarship Schemes of the Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India in Indore district of Madhya Pradesh, Submitted to the Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, March, 2012.
    3. Guidelines of the Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme of the Ministry  of Minority Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, March, 2006.

Islam and Muslim Societies a social science journal (Vol. 5 No. 2 – 2012)

Dr. Fahimuddin is Senior Fellow, Giri Institute of Development Studies, Lucknow, email : drfahim2007@yahoo.co.in