Vol_5_No_2_Impact_of_Multi_Sector_Development_Plan_on_Muslims

Impact of Multi Sector Development Plan on Muslims: A Case Study of Moradabad District Download

B. K. Bajpai

Introduction

At the national level, 90 Minority Concentrated districts were identified as backward ones based on (I) population data and (ii) backwardness parameters of Census 2001. ‘Substantial minority population’ in the context of the Prime Minister’s New 15 point Programme has been used for the identification of districts, which are relatively backward in which at least 25 percent of the total population belongs to the minority communities has been used for the identification of MCD in 29 States/ Union Territories. Apart from this, districts having a large absolute minority population of more than five lakhs, but with the minority population between 20 to 25 percent have also been used for the identification of such MCD in 29 states and Union Territories. Where a minority community is in majority in the six states/ UTs, 15 percent of the minority population other that of the minority community in majority in that state/ UT, has been used.

In the state of Uttar Pradesh, the share of Muslim population is about 18.5 per cent (Census 2001). Muslims constitute the highest minority population in the state as compared to the other religious minority groups like Sikh, Christian, Buddhist, Jain and others, etc. Overall minorities share is almost one-fifth of the state population, and most of them are deprived sections. Ministry of Minority Affairs has undertaken the task to understand the objective situation of minorities in the state and the country, so that necessary initiatives can be taken for their upliftment in particular, and for overall development of the country in general. The expert committee has identified the relatively backward minority concentrated districts of India. The identification of minority concentrated districts was done on the criterion of religious-specific socio-economic and basic amenities indicators.

Thus, total 90 districts across the country were selected, out of which 21 districts were from Uttar Pradesh. These minorities, in fact Muslim, concentrated districts of the state are found to be relatively backward and have one or both socio- economic and basic amenities indicators below the national average.

In view of these, a special area development scheme called the Multi-sectoral Development Programme (MsDP), designed to address the ‘development deficits’ identified by a baseline survey in these districts was launched for these districts in 2008-09. The programme aims at improving the socio- economic parameters of basic amenities for improving the quality of life of the people and reducing the imbalances in the Minority Concentrated Districts (MCDs) during  Eleventh Five Year Plan period.  As per provisions, identified ‘development deficits’ are to be made up through a district specific plan for provision of better infrastructure for schools and secondary education, sanitation, pucca housing, drinking water and electricity supply, besides beneficiary oriented schemes for creating income generating activities. The thrust of MsDP is expected to improve the socio- economic parameters of minorities and the basic amenities parameters of the district as a whole to bring them at par with national average or even higher.

Objective

The present paper analyses the implementation process and impact of MsDP in the district Moradabad of Uttar Pradesh. The Paper also analyses the need for any modification in the process of preparation, approval and implementation of the district plan and finds out whether the asset created and the service rendered by the facility created has improved the quality of service and life to the minority communities.  It lastly identifies the bottlenecks faced by beneficiaries in availing the benefits of the programme and presents suggestions for the same.

Methodology and Tools

Analysis of the paper is based on the list of district villages where MsDP programme has been undertaken with the help of local administration. Two blocks have been selected from the district on the basis of two criteria. (i) Level of minority concentration and (ii) high level of execution of MsDP programme.

To evaluate the impact on the household beneficiaries of different programme components, 10 villages were randomly selected from two blocks from the set of villages where MsDP programme has been undertaken. Out of the two sample blocks, one is having maximum concentration of the minority population and other with highest number of the completed MsDP projects. In course of selection of sample villages, sufficient care was taken so that any running active programme component in the district is not missed. For MsDP implementation in the district, programmes are of two types- common beneficiary programmes and individual beneficiary programmes. Among individual beneficiary programmes, small number of sample non- beneficiary households has also been considered. The total number of households surveyed in each village is 30.

Considering the aims of the paper, district, village and household questionnaires and a format for focus group discussion have been prepared to capture the views of the stakeholders on the performance and impact of Multi-sectoral Development Plan.

Preparation of MsDP

Moradabad was selected among minority concentrated districts of the state and MsDP was prepared for this district. The District Planning Committee/ District Level Committee for implementation of the PM’s New 15Point Programme prepared MsDP Plan. The main officials involved in the preparation of the plan were DM, CDO, Project Officer, DUDA District Minority Welfare Officer and the officers from ICDS and Health departments. The members of PRIs were involved in the preparation of district MsDP.  The plan was approved in the month of May 2009 through DPC Meeting. The approved Plan was formulated according to district profile. This has brought out the development deficits identified by the survey, indicated the strategy for addressing the deficits, propose projects/work to fill the development deficits either by topping up the funds of ongoing schemes/programmes of the Central Govt or propose projects which are not catered to by existing schemes/programmes of the Central and State Governments. The committee ensured that the projects included in the plan have not been sanctioned or proposed under any other scheme of the State/ Central Govt or any other source of funding. It has ensured that there is no duplication with other public-funded schemes with similar objectives being implemented in the district. It was also ensured that the plan was in consonance with the annual plans and Eleventh Five Year Plan. However, the District Plan took its final shape after it was submitted four times to the state government for approval. The plan was to be prepared more than once, as plan proposal was not found as per priorities brought out by the Baseline Survey.  In course of the preparation and finalisation of MsDP plan, the DPC meeting was attended by elected representatives (MP and MLAs), representatives of PRIs and important NGOs. The DPC meetings were held quarterly. The plan contained concept papers on each of the prioritized projects accompanied by a socio-economic feasibility report.

Fund Release Mechanism

The funds for the execution of the plan were regular in course of the release of first instalment. The delay was not reported in the release of either  of instalments. For the implementation of the working of the plan, block, gram panchayat and village levels were considered as intra- district devolution units. The funds allocated for the district under MsDP were reported to be the sufficient to address the identified development deficits in Moradabad district. The year- wise details regarding district MsDP entitlements, release and utilisation of development funds are presented in Table 1. According to the data made available from the district, a sum of Rs. 2635.71 lakh was allocated under MsDP over a period of two years. The total amount was released in two instalments. The first instalment was released during the year 2009-10. The funds for the year 2010-11 were released in two instalments. The total released amount was utilise

Table: 1- MsDP Entitlements, Release and Utilisation of Development Fund

Financial Year

Allocation
(Rs. Lakh)

Fund Released to the District

Whether Delay

Total amount utilized (Rs. In Lakh)

Sent UC/ Y or No

Ist Instalment

2nd Instalment

Amount (in Lakh)

Date

Amount (in Lakh)

Date

Y or No

2007-08

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

2008-09

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

2009-10

1791.06

245.97

21.8.09

1791.06

Yes

81.99

18.12.09

1376.18

3.6.09

86.92

27.10.09

2010-11

844.65

52.50

12.11.10

327.94

30.7.10

844.65

Yes

197.25

12.11.10

102.24

31.08.10

164.72

16.11.10

Total

2635.71

2041.41

594.90

2635.71

(Source: Office of the Minorities Welfare, Moradabad)

Use of MsDP Fund

The list of block- wise completed components of MsDP programme included construction of Anganwadi centres, Indra Awas houses, Primary health Sub Centres, installation of Hand pumps and rebore of hand pumps.  The work under MsDP did not include important components like, construction of additional classrooms in the schools, school buildings, and provision of teaching aid, lab equipments and the construction of ITI. However, there is one ITI found under construction under MsDP programme. The block- wise total number of MsDP projects in the district is presented in Table 2.

Table: 2- List of Completed MSDP Programme in Moradabad District

Sl. No BLOCK NAME AGANWADI INDRA AWAS HAND PUMP PRIMARY HEALTH SUB CENTER REBOE OF  HAND PUMP ITI TOATL % OF MINORITIES POPULATION IN BLOCK
1 Asmoli

49

499

15

3

59

625

66.18

(10.52)

(26.63)

(10.00)

(13.04)

(7.87)

(19.15)

2 Baniyakhera

25

56

8

4

14

107

53.83

(5.36)

(2.99)

(5.33)

(17.39)

(1.87)

(3.28)

3 Behjoi

5

16

2

0

4

27

61.11

(1.07)

(0.85)

(1.33)

(0.00)

(0.53)

(0.83)

4 Bhagatpur Tanda

49

125

20

4

51

249

13.81

(10.52)

(6.67)

(13.33)

(17.39)

(6.80)

(7.63)

5 Bilari

27

125

2

2

48

1

205

52.56

(5.79)

(6.67)

(1.33)

(8.70)

(6.40)

(100.00)

(6.28)

6 Chhajlet

21

58

10

2

64

155

50.54

(4.51)

(3.09)

(6.67)

(8.70)

(8.53)

(4.75)

7 Dilari

28

695

25

2

68

818

69.69

(6.01)

(37.09)

(16.67)

(8.70)

(9.07)

(25.06)

Kunderki

77

138

14

2

99

330

52.64

(16.52)

(7.36)

(9.33)

(8.70)

(13.20)

(10.11)

9 Moradabad

32

55

15

2

50

154

58.78

(6.87)

(2.93)

(10.00)

(8.70)

(6.67)

(4.72)

10 Munjdapandey

26

17

10

0

133

186

72.44

(5.58)

(0.91)

(6.67)

0

(17.73)

(5.70)

11 Pawasa

26

63

13

2

36

140

60.75

(5.58)

(3.36)

(8.67)

(8.70)

(4.80)

(4.29)

12 Sambhal

59

27

16

0

88

190

72.55

(12.66)

(1.44)

(10.67)

(0.00)

(11.73)

(5.82)

13 Thakurdwara

42

0

0

0

36

78

50.42

(9.01)

(0.00)

(0.00)

(4.80)

(2.39)

Total

466
(100.0)

1874
(100.0)

150
(100.0)

23
(100.0)

750
(100.0)

1
(100.0)

3264
(100.0)

(Source: Office of the Minorities Welfare, Moradabad)

The details regarding year- wise physical and financial achievement of different components under MsDP are presented in Table 3. As per information presented in table, construction under different components was done during the years 2009-10 and 2010-11.  The construction of a single ITI in the district under MsDP was started in the year 2010-11. The construction could not be completed so far and it is still in progress. The first instalment of Rs. 164.72 lakh was received during the year 2010-11. It is also reflected from the available data that, most of the amount for construction work under MsDP was received during the years 2009-10. Out of total amount spent during 2009-10, the maximum 76.84 percent was spent under AWC. In case of the year 2010-11, the maximum share of the spending was on IAY.  Out of more than Rs. 26 crores of the total expenditure for MsDP during both the years in the district, maximum 52 percent was spent on the construction of AWCs (Table 3).

Table: 3- Year- wise Physical and Financial Achievement

SI. No.

Programme

Physical/ Financial

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

Total

1 IAY Physical (No.s)

937

937

1874

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

327.96
(18.31)

327.96
(38.83)

655.92
(24.89)

2 Health Physical (No.s)

10

13

23

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

86.92
(4.85)

102.24
(12.10)

189.16
(7.18)

3 AWC Physical (No.s)

466

466

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

1376.18
(76.84)

1376.18
(52.21)

4 DWS Physical (No.s)

150

150

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

52.50
(6.22)

52.50
(1.99)

5 Rebore of Hand pumps Physical (No.s)

300

300

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

197.25
(23.35)

197.25
(7.48)

6 School Building Physical (No.s)

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

7 Teaching Aid Physical (No.s)

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

8 Lab Equipment Physical (No.s)

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

9 ITI Physical (No.s)

1*

1*

Financial (Rs. In lakh)

164.72
(19.50)

164.72
(6.25)

Total

1791.06
(100.0)

844.65
(100.0)

2635.71
(100.0)

*Construction of ITI under MsDP in the district is incomplete
(Source: Office of the Minorities Welfare, Moradabad)

Monitoring of MsDP Programme

An interaction with district level officials and subsequent perusal of records revealed that there has been an internal monitoring of MsDP through duly constituted District Level Task Force. There has also been a provision of monthly monitoring of the programme and monitoring report of the same was prepared.

No official from Govt. of UP has visited the district to inspect the assets created under MsDP programme. Some officials from Government of India have visited the district for the inspection of the assets created under the programme during March and October 2011. National level monitor has also visited the district during the March 2010 and October 2011same. All the visits of national level officials were not found to be of much use as suggestions regarding required measures to improve the functioning of the programme in the district were not given by either of them.

General Views and related Information of MsDP Functioning

There was an IT Cable Cell for MsDP programme in the district, which was found to be operating as per laid down guidelines. Apart from this, an administrative budget of Rs.  1,45,000 was released from the Centre Govt. budget, which was spent on various inspections of this programme in the district.

 As a part of internal monitoring mechanism, at the district level a Task Force consisting of different district level officials verifies the assets created under MsDP from time to time and reports to the Chief Development Officer, CDO, as well as District Magistrate through District Minority Welfare Officer.  People’s participation in MsDP programme was not ensured. No periodical discussion of programme related plans and problems with the members of the minority community were held. The public information system relating to this programme was not found in place the software requirement was not fulfilled by either State or Centre Governments.

An interview with the district level officials revealed that MsDP in this district is not only being perceived as minority programme but is considered a comprehensive area development programme. According to them, it is a fruitful programme for the upliftment of minorities in particular and the whole community in general.
According to the district level officials involved in the implementation of the programme have also reported some constrains in the implementation of this programme in the district. Rampant grass root level corruptions as well as lack of knowledge among the people about MsDP are found to be the main constraints in the implementation of this programme in the district. The held the opinion that awareness campaign can bring about the improvement in this respect among the people. Awareness among the masses will also be instrumental in bringing down the corruption.

There has not been any data entry in the MIS- MsDP through software application as the required software was not made available in the district.

There are reported to be sectors/ areas which could be undertaken through MsDP in the district are connecting villages through all whether roads to the main roads, provision of CC road with in the villages and saturation in electric supply. Officials have also expressed the need of empowering the District Minority Officer by entrusting more authority for taking important decisions relating to MsDP implementation.

Assets created under MSDP and its Impact

For analysing the impact of created assets through this programme, paper categorised the assets created under MsDP as assets for individual beneficiaries and those for common beneficiaries.

A- Assets created for Individual Beneficiaries

More than 36 percent sample households were benefitted from housing facilities (IAY) under MsDP. The provision of drinking water under this programme was made available to about 22 percent sample households. Remaining 41.34 percent households were not included in any of the individual programmes under MsDP running in the district.

The selection of individual beneficiary households for IAY was found to be made by Gram Sabha for more than 82 percent sample households. The elected representatives of panchayat selected about 7 percent households. Some 8 percent households were selected for individual benefits without anybody recommendation.

About 83 percent of the houses under IAY were reported to be constructed at the time of survey. More than 16 percent houses were incomplete. Out of total 220 houses in the sample area, the beneficiary himself constructed 65 percent houses. In rest of the 33 percent cases, the construction was made through labour engaged by the beneficiary. In 70 percent construction work under IAY housing in the sample area, no help was received by panchayats or Zilla parishad. However, in 20 percent cases the monitoring work of the construction was done through panchayats. It seems the availability of minimum essential  amenities was not there in the large number of the newly constructed house under IAY.

The selection of  beneficiaries for the Drinking Water Supply under MsDP was made throughGram Sabha for more than 87 percent beneficiaries of the sample area.  The work of installing hand pumps was done through block office for 47 percent beneficiaries. In case of more than 52 percent beneficiaries, other agencies or beneficiary themselves completed the work. The role of Panchayat has been the minimum.  The water of the newly installed hand pumps was not tested before the commissioning of the scheme in about 77 percent villages. In more than 77 percent sample villages, beneficiaries themselves shouldered the main responsibility of maintaining the hand pumps of the scheme. The role of agencies involved with the project has been minimum ranging from less than 7 percent to about 16 percent in the sample villages.

B- Assets created for Common Beneficiaries

Village Health care Centres/ Sub Centres were started in the district under MsDP  .In case of medical care and health care needs only about 15 percent households reported visits to these health sub centres. In fact, most of the newly established health centres were not functioning properly.

Out of total beneficiary households, the use of AWCs has been applicable to only 66 percent beneficiary households of the sample villages. Out of total 38 percent sent their children to AWCs regularly. More than 14 percent sent their children to these AWCs only some times and 14 percent never cent their children to these centres. Out of total families who have never sent their children to the AWCs established under MsDP programme, 36 percent found poor facilities in these centres. Another 31 percent reported poor quality of services and 6 percent of them had both type of problems.

Suggestions for Improving the Plan

  • > 60 percent households out of total respondents had knowledge about other MsDP projects running in their villages. According to 80 percent respondents, the projects of MsDP have improved the conditions of the village in many respects. They also held the opinion that the village may further develop with the implementation of this programme in future.
  • >There are reported to be sectors/ areas, which could be undertaken through MsDP in the district, are connecting villages through all whether roads to the main roads, provision of CC road with in the villages and saturation in electric supply. Officials have also expressed the need of empowering the District Minority Officer by entrusting more authority for taking important decisions relating to MsDP implementation. This may yield  better results of MsDP in the district.
  • > Hand pumps to the selected individual households were provided under this  scheme. Other more useful modes of drinking water supply like, piped water supply and tube wells were not included under this programme in the district.
  • > The village level stakeholder reported for the need of reboaring of existing defunct hand pumps in the villages. There should be sufficient provision of reboaring of old hand pumps in district.
  • > The process of selection of villages under MsDP project has been biased and faulty as reported by the stakeholders during FGD. There should be an assessment of the process of village selection for this programme in the district.
  • > The process of ITI construction under MsDP has been unduly delayed. This has deprived many youths of the district from getting vocational/ technical training. The mechanism of work supervision and monitoring of such big projects should be overhauled.

Conclusion

The implementation of MsDP was started during 2008-09 in different district of the state. Despite large financial allocations the programme did not pickup as per expectations. Different components of the programme could not be developed at an equal footing.   This was simply because the required level of monitoring was not done at the district and state levels. The seriousness was not found among the officials involved in the implementation of this programme. The quality of assets created was also not found up to the mark due to lack of quality control. Government officials seldom visited for inspecting the construction sites. There were found to be some other problems in prioritising the components of programme and the selection of beneficiaries. Big projects like construction work of polytechnic and ITIs could not be completed so far because of lacklustre approach of implementing authorities. All this calls for greater peoples participation in programme selection and its implementation.

There should be more active  role of Panchayti Raj institutions and the members of the minority community in the programme implementation. They should be a part of the team for monitoring the programme implementation.

References

1.         Bajpai, B. K., 2007, Report on Baseline Survey in the Minority Concentrated Districts of Uttar Pradesh, Giri Institute of Development Studies, Lucknow.
2.         Bajpai, B. K., 2012, Impact Evaluation study of MsDP for the Minority Concentrated Districts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, Giri Institute of Development Studies, Lucknow.
3.        Syed Ahmed, 1012, Charges of irregularity in the implementation of MsDP in Assam, TwoCircles.net.
4.         2008, Programme and Guidelines for Preparation of Multi-sectoral District Development Plans for Minority Concentration Districts, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India.
5.         Gonzales, Fernando, 1999, Research Report, Do Multi-sectoral Development Programmes Affect Health, HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING; 14(4): 400–408, Oxford University Press, 1999.